Desde os anos 50 do século passado que o desempenho académico tem sido foco de interesse por parte de investigadores e decisores políticos. No entanto, apenas recentemente os métodos de ciência de dados começaram a ser aplicados de forma mais sistemática a este tema. Este trabalho utiliza os dados dos exames nacionais de matemática e português da população portuguesa no ano letivo 2018/2019 para, através de redes neuronais, avaliar e comparar quais os fatores que afetam os resultados desses exames, e de que forma. Além disso, uma nova abordagem é apresentada para lidar com o dilema da "caixa negra" dos métodos de ciências de dados mais avançados. Esta abordagem passa pela criação de um conjunto de protótipos através de Redes Neuronais, fornecendo uma estimativa de quanto cada potencial impacta o desempenho acadêmico.
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