Advancing research and practice in entrepreneurship through speech analysis – From descriptive rhetorical terms to phonetically informed acoustic charisma profiles
Keywords:Speech, Prosody, Persuasion, Entrepreneurship, Rhetoric, Charisma
Entrepreneurs aim at introducing innovations into the market, e.g., in the form of new products or services. However, innovations always mean changes, and people tend react reluctantly to changes. Moreover, introducing the innovations into the market is often linked with a higher investment risk. Thus, before ideas can become tangible reality, they first of all need to be "sold", for example, to supervisors, potential investors, and, finally, customers. For these reasons, it is particularly critical for entrepreneurs to have a charismatic way of speaking with which they can persuade others of their ideas. Against this background, we motivate and outline in this concept paper a new interdisciplinary line of research that focuses on the speaker's tone of voice. The new line of research builds upon traditional rhetorical descriptions of a speaker's charismatic tone of voice and is meant to extend and eventually replace this descriptive terminology by an objective acoustically based and perceptually informed tone-of-voice analysis, evaluation, and learning. We outline initial promising findings we have made within this new line of research, also in comparison to the established Charismatic Leadership Tactics (CLTs) whose focus is on the verbal aspects of charismatic speech.
Ambrazaitis G. Nuclear Intonation in Swedish : Evidence from Experimental-Phonetic Studies and a Comparison with German. Travaux de l'Institut de Linguistique de Lund, 49. Lund: Lund University Press; 2009.
Antonakis J, Fenley M, Liechti S. Can charisma be taught? Tests of two interventions. Acad. Manag. Learn. Educ. 2011;10:374–396.
Antonakis J, Fenley M, Liechti S. Learning charisma: Transform yourself into someone people want to follow. Harvard Bus. Rev. 2012:127–130.
Antonakis J, Bastardoz N, and Jacquart P. Charisma: An ill-defined and ill-measured gift. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior 2016;3:293-319.
Apps J. Voice of Influence: How to get people to love to listen to you. Bethel: Crown House; 2009.
Bänziger T, Patel S, and Scherer KR. The Role of Perceived Voice and Speech Characteristics in Vocal Emotion Communication. Journal of Nonverbal Behaviour 2014;38:31-52.
Bass BM. Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. New York: Free Press; 1985.
Berger S, Niebuhr O, Peters B. Winning Over an Audience – A Perception-based Analysis of Prosodic Features of Charismatic Speech. In: Proc. 43rd Annual Meeting of the German Acoustical Society (DAGA), Kiel, Germany, 2017. 1454-1457.
Biadsy F, Rosenberg A, Carlson R, Hirschberg J, Strangert E. A cross-cultural comparison of American, Palestinian, and Swedish perception of charismatic speech. In: Proc. International Conference of Speech Prosody, Campinas, Brazil, 2008. 579-582.
Bies RJ, Shapiro DL. Voice and justification: Their influence on procedural fairness judgments. Academy of Management Journal 1988;31:676-685.
Bodow S. Charmed I'm sure. USA Today; 2002. URL: http://www.usatoday.com/money/jobcenter/workplace/successstrategies.
Bosker HR. The role of temporal amplitude modulations in the political arena: Hillary Clinton vs. Donald Trump. In: Proc. 18th Interspeech Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, 2017. 1-5.
Brettel M. Entscheidungskriterien von Venture Capitalists, eine empirische Analyse im internationalen Vergleich. Die Betriebswirtschaft 2002;62:305-325.
Brinckmann J, Grichnik D, Kapsa, D. Should entrepreneurs plan or just storm the castle? A meta-analysis on contextual factors impacting the business planning–performance relationship in small firms. Journal of Business Venturing 2010;25: 24-40.
Burns JM. Leadership. New York: Harper & Row; 1978.
Bygrave WD, Timmons JA. Venture Capital at the Crossroads. Boston: Harvard Business School Press; 1992.
Camargo Z, Madureira S. Voice quality analysis from a phonetic perspective: Voice Profile Analysis Scheme (VPAS) Profile for Brazilian Portuguese. In: Proc. 4th International Conference of Speech Prosody, Campinas, Brazil, 2008. 57-60.
Chebat JC, El Hedhli K, Gélinas-Chebat C, Boivin, R. Voice and Persuasion in a Banking Telemarketing Context. Perceptual And Motor Skills 2007;104:419-437.
Chen X, Yao X, Kotha S. Entrepreneur passion and preparedness in business plan presentations: A persuasion analysis of venture capitalists' funding decisions. Academy of Management Journal 2009;52:199-214.
Clark C. The impact of entrepreneurs' oral ‘pitch’ presentation skills on business angels' initial screening investment decisions. Venture Capital 2008;10:257-279.
Conger JA, Kanungo RN. Charismatic leadership in organizations. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications; 1998.
Davies JC. Charisma in the 1952 campaign. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev 1954;48:1083–1102.
Davis BC, Hmieleski KM, Webb JW, Coombs JE. Funders' positive affective reactions to entrepreneurs' crowdfunding pitches: The influence of perceived product creativity and entrepreneurial passion. Journal of Business Venturing 2017;32:90–106.
DeGroot T, Aime F, Johnson SG, Kluemper D. Does talking the talk help walking the walk? An examination of the effect of vocal attractiveness in leader effectiveness. The Leadership Quarterly 2011;22:680-689.
Delmar F, Shane S. Legitimating first: organizing activities and the survival of new ventures Journal of Business Venturing 2004;19:385-410.
D’Errico F, Signorello R, Demolin D, Poggi I. The perception of charisma from voice. A cross-cultural study. In: Proc. Humaine Association Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction, Geneva, Switzerland, 2013. 552-557.
Fang CM, Tsai HT, Shih MH, Chang HJ. A study on the evaluation criteria of venture capital and manager's characteristics. Journal of Entrepreneurship Research 2006;1:175-196.
Fischer K, Niebuhr O, Novák-Tót E, Jensen LC. Strahlt die negative Reputation von Häsitationsmarkern auf ihre Sprecher aus? In: Proc. 43rd Annual Meeting of the German Acoustical Society (DAGA), Kiel, Germany, 2017. 1450-1453.
Fisher G., Kuratko D, Bloodgood J.M., Hornsby J.S. Legitimate to whom? The challenge of audience diversity and new venture legitimacy. Journal of Business Venturing 2017;32:52–71.
Fletcher J, Stirling L, Musin I, Wales R. Intonational rises and dialog acts in the Australian English map task. Language and Speech 2002; 45:229-253.
Franke N, Gruber M, Henkel J, Hoisl K. Die Bewertung von Gründerteams durch Venture-Capital-Geber. Die Betriebswirtschaft 2004;64:651-670.
Frese M, Beimel S, Schoenborn S. Action training for charismatic leadership: two evaluations of studies of a commercial training module on inspirational communication of a vision. Pers. Psychol. 2003;56:671–697.
Friedman HS, Riggio RE, Casella DF. Nonverbal skill, personal charisma, and initial attraction. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 1988;14:203-211.
Furnham A, Petrova E. Body language in business - Decoding the signals. London: Palgrave; 2010.
Garnier M, Henrich N, Castellengo M, Sotiropoulos D, Dubois D. Characterisation of Voice Quality in Western Lyrical Singing: from Teachers' Judgements to Acoustic Descriptions. Journal of Interdisciplinary Music Studies 2007;1:62-91.
Gélinas-Chebat C, Chebat JC, Vaninsky A. Voice and Advertising : Effects of Intonation and Intensity of Voice on Source Credibility, Attitudes toward the Advertised Service and the Intend to Buy. Perceptual and Motor Skills 1996;83:243-262.
Gerratt BR, Kreiman J. Toward a taxonomy of nonmodal phonation. Journal of Phonetics 2001;29: 365-381.
Griffin LD. Walt Whitman's Voice. Walt Whitman Quarterly Review 1992;9:125-133.
Gruener, W. On Stage, Mark Zuckerberg is no Steve Jobs. Tomsguide; 2011. URL: https://www.tomsguide.com/us/facebook-skype-video-calling-social-networking,news-11808.html
Hannan M, Freeman J. Structural intertia and organizational change. American Sociological Review 1984;49:149-164.
Hayes, B. Unwed Numbers. American Scientist 2006;94:12-15.
Hinton L, Nichols J, Ohala JJ, editors. Sound symbolism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1994.
Hiroyuki T, Rathcke T. Then, What is Charisma? The Role of Audio-visual Prosody in L1 and L2 Political Speeches. In: Proc. Phonetik & Phonologie im deutschsprachigen Raum, Munich, Germany, 2016. 1-3.
Holladay SJ, Coombs WT. Communicating visions: An exploration of the role of delivery in the creation of leader charisma. Management Communication Quarterly 1993;6:405-427.
Holladay SJ, Coombs WT. Speaking of visions and visions being spoken an exploration of the effects of content and delivery on perceptions of leader charisma. Management Communication Quarterly 1994;8:165-189.
House RJ. A theory of charismatic leadership. In: JG Hunt, LL Larson, editors. The Cutting Edge. Carbondale: S. Ill. Univ. Press, 1977. 189-207.
Jacquart P, Antonakis J. When does charisma matter for top-level leaders? Effect of attributional ambiguity. Acad. Manag. J. 2015;58:1051–1074.
Jessop, EN. A gestural media framework: Tools for expressive gesture recognition and mapping in rehearsal and performance. PhD thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, USA; 2010.
Kleber F. Form and function of falling pitch contours in English. In: Proc. 3rd International Conference of Speech Prosody, Dresden, Germany, 2006. 61-64.
Kohler KJ. Parametric control of prosodic variables by symbolic input in TTS synthesis. In: JPH van Santen, RW Sproat, JP Olive, J Hirschberg, editors. Progress in Speech Synthesis. New York: Springer, 1997. 459-475.
Koppensteiner M, Grammer K. Motion patterns in political speech and their influence on personality ratings. Journal of Research in Personality 2010;44:374–379.
Ladd, DR. Intonational phonology. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2008.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2017 Oliver Niebuhr, Alexander Brem, Silke Tegtmeier
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.