Journal of Speech Sciences https://econtents.bc.unicamp.br/inpec/index.php/joss <p><strong>Scope</strong>: The <strong>Journal of Speech Sciences</strong> [JoSS] covers experimental aspects that deal with scientific aspects of speech, language and linguistic communication processes. Coverage also includes articles dealing with pathological topics, or articles of an interdisciplinary nature, provided that experimental and linguistic principles underlie the work reported. Experimental approaches are emphasized in order to stimulate the development of new methodologies, of new annotated corpora, of new techniques aiming at fully testing current theories of speech production, perception, as well as phonetic and phonological theories and their interfaces.<br /><strong>Qualis</strong>: B1<br /><strong>Knowledge area</strong>: Linguística e Literatura <br /><strong>Founded since: </strong>2011<br /><strong>E-ISSN</strong>: 2236-9740<br /><strong>Short title</strong>: J. of Speech Sci.<br /><strong>E-mail</strong>: <a title="E-mail" href="https://econtents.bc.unicamp.br/inpec/index.php/index/admin/contexts/mailto:pabarbosa.unicampbr@gmail.com" target="_blank" rel="noopener">pabarbosa.unicampbr@gmail.com</a><br /><strong>Unit</strong>: IEL<br /><strong>DOI</strong>: 10.20396<br /><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="https://econtents.bc.unicamp.br/inpec//public/site/images/administrador/CC_80x1510.png" /></a></p> Universidade Estadual de Campinas en-US Journal of Speech Sciences 2236-9740 The truth below the surface https://econtents.bc.unicamp.br/inpec/index.php/joss/article/view/16153 <p>The recipient is a stimulus-external factor that has so far hardly been investigated in hate-speech research. However, addressing this factor is essential to understand how and why hate speech unfolds its negative effects and which characteristics of the recipient influence these effects. The present study focuses on the recipient. Building on previous findings from explicit ratings and initial successful replications of such ratings through biosignals, we are conducting the first large-scale, systematic, and cross-linguistic biosignal study on hate speech based on two EEG measures: the beta-alpha ratio associated with arousal and the frontal alpha asymmetry associated with valence. A total of 50 Danish and German participants took part and were presented with spoken and written hate-speech stimuli, derived from authentic hate-speech posts on Twitter. Results show that Danes reacted more sensitively than Germans to hate speech containing figurative language (swear words), while Germans reacted more sensitively to hate speech with Holocaust references than Danes. In addition, teachers and lawyers showed less negative reactions to hate speech than church employees, students, and pensioners. The effect of the presentation medium depended on the respective hate speech type. In particular, speaking out hate speech based on irony and indirectness attenuated its effects on recipients to such an extent that it is questionable whether the stimuli were still perceived as instances of hate speech at all. We discuss the results in terms of key tasks of future studies and practical implication for the punishment and management of hate speech on social media.</p> Oliver Niebuhr Jana Neitsch Copyright (c) 2022 Oliver Niebuhr, Jana Neitsch https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-11-14 2022-11-14 11 e022004 e022004 10.20396/joss.v11i00.16153 On the emergence of [n] in the derivation of nasal-final words in brazilian portuguese https://econtents.bc.unicamp.br/inpec/index.php/joss/article/view/16537 <p>This article deals with the correspondence between words closed by [n] followed by a vowel-initial suffix (e.g., ca[n]al 'channel', tupi[n]ismo 'Tupinism') and their respective bases in Brazilian Portuguese (e.g., cano 'pipe', tupi 'Tupi'). The data sources for the analysis are the Corpus Brasileiro, representing the lexicon in use, and a pseudoword test, representing the potential lexicon. Two representational hypotheses are contrasted in the analysis of this correspondence: the abstract approach, in which the bases are assumed to be closed by a VN structure, and the concrete approach, according to which [n] is part of the base or a product of epenthesis. The selection of the pattern VN was assumed as the response variable in the statistical analysis. According to the logistic regression test, final-stress bases and mid and high vowels preceding [n]Vsuffix are predictors of the VN pattern for the two samples. In the potential lexicon, the interaction between high frequency lexical strings and the suffixes -icV and -ismV as well as the random variables 'participant' and 'pseudoword' also contribute to the selection of the base pattern VN. The results confirm the plausibility of the abstract approach in the analysis of [n]Vsuffix forms in Brazilian Portuguese.</p> Luiz Carlos Schwindt Maria Bernadete Abaurre Copyright (c) 2022 Luiz Carlos Schwindt, Maria Bernadete Abaurre https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 11 e022003 e022003 10.20396/joss.v11i00.16537 The Syntax of Existential Constructions https://econtents.bc.unicamp.br/inpec/index.php/joss/article/view/16181 <p>This study, in two parts, endeavors a novel analysis of existential constructions, based on a different theoretical setting of clause structure, where the predicate is taken as a necessary and sufficient constituent of the clause. Leaning on this perception, the analyses of existential constructions developed here tries to overcome the discrepancy between form and (semantic and informational) meaning in Hebrew existential constructions. The main part of the study deals with affirmative existential-presentative constructions, used to introduce referents into the discourse. Most of the constructions have been analyzed as consisting of an existential constituent, viewed as a modal marker, and a pivot, regarded as the core component of the predicate domain. This analysis is shown to be valid for both the existential marker jeʃ and for its suppletive verbal forms, derived from √hjj ‘be’. A distinction is made between verbal forms with non-referential and referential verb-bound person markers, where the latter, found with expected, known<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>or given pivots, function as focus marking devices, coming in complementary distribution with prosodic marking of focus. Thus, presentative-existential sentences are formed as unipartite sentences, consisting of only a predicate domain. The last two sections of Part I deal with constructions where the existential constituent follows the pivot and with constructions where the pivot is definite. Part II deals with other existential constructions, including negative constructions; bipartite existential sentences; existential constituents as sole constituents in a sentence; existential constituents with clitic referential markers; and the use of existential markers as interjections or discourse markers.</p> Shlomo Izre'el Copyright (c) 2022 Shlomo Izre'el https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-07-11 2022-07-11 11 e022001 e022001 10.20396/joss.v11i00.16181 The existential construction in Spoken Modern Hebrew https://econtents.bc.unicamp.br/inpec/index.php/joss/article/view/17454 <p>This contribution is part of the Debate section that dialogues with the two-part paper "The Syntax of Existential Constructions" by Shlomo Izre'el from Tel-Aviv University published in Volume 11 in 2022. In this response and rejoinder to Izre'el's monumental paper on existential constructions in spoken Israeli Hebrew, I call attention to the fact that unlike European languages, Hebrew is a non-subject oriented or non-configurational language type, and highlight that existential particle yeš in Hebrew is a TAM marker. I further enhance on the multifactionality of constructions featuring particle yeš far beyond bare assertion of existence. In addition, I refer to the high productivity of competitive configurations to the bare existential yeš construction based on a range of eventive-situative and locational verbs that are widespread in current use of Hebrew.</p> Rivka Halevy Copyright (c) 2022 Rivka Halevy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-12-09 2022-12-09 11 e022005 e022005 10.20396/joss.v11i00.17454 The Syntax of Existential Constructions https://econtents.bc.unicamp.br/inpec/index.php/joss/article/view/16183 <p>This study, in two parts, endeavors a novel analysis of existential constructions, based on a different theoretical setting of clause structure, where the predicate is taken as a necessary and sufficient constituent of the clause. Leaning on this perception, the analyses of existential constructions developed here tries to overcome the discrepancy between form and (semantic and informational) meaning in Hebrew existential constructions. Part I of the study dealt with affirmative existential-presentative constructions, used to introduce referents into the discourse. Most of the constructions were analyzed as consisting of an existential constituent, viewed as a modal marker, and a pivot, regarded as the core component of the predicate domain. This analysis was shown to be valid for both the existential marker jeʃ and for its suppletive verbal forms, derived from √hjj ‘be’. Thus, presentative-existential sentences are formed as unipartite sentences, consisting of only a predicate domain. Part II deals with other existential constructions, including negative constructions; bipartite existential sentences; existential constituents as sole constituents in a sentence; existential constituents with clitic referential markers; and the use of the existential markers as interjections or discourse markers.</p> Shlomo Izre'el Copyright (c) 2022 Shlomo Izre'el https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 11 e022002 e022002 10.20396/joss.v11i00.16183