Cosmopolítica indígena nos Andes

reflexões conceituais para além da “política”

Autores

  • Marisol de la Cadena Universidade da Califórnia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.20396/maloca.v2i.13404

Palavras-chave:

Natureza-cultura, Cosmopolítica, Pluriverso, Andes, América Latina, Política indígena, Movimentos anti-mineração

Resumo

Na América Latina, a política praticada pelos povos indígenas tem sido classificada como “política étnica”. Seu ativismo é interpretado como uma questão de fazer prevalecer direitos culturais. Mas e se “cultura” for uma noção insuficiente, e até mesmo inadequada, para pensar o desafio que a política indígena representa? Inspirado nos eventos políticos recentes no Peru — e, em menor medida, no Equador e na Bolívia — em que o movimento indígena-popular tem evocado entidades sencientes (montanhas, água e terra — aquilo que chamamos de “natureza”) para o interior da esfera da política pública, o argumento deste ensaio possui três dimensões. Primeiro, a indigeneidade, como uma formação histórica, excede a noção usual de política, isto é, uma arena povoada de seres humanos racionais disputando o poder de representar outros humanos frente ao Estado. Segundo, a atual emergência política da indigeneidade — nos movimentos de oposição antimineração no Peru e no Equador, mas também em eventos comemorativos na Bolívia — desafia a separação entre natureza e cultura que sustenta a noção predominante de política e seu contrato social correspondente. Terceiro, para além da “política étnica”, os movimentos indígenas atuais propõem uma prática política diferente, plural não porque promovida por corpos marcados por gênero, raça, etnicidade ou sexualidade (como o multiculturalismo entenderia), mas porque evocam não humanos como atores na arena política.

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2020-11-23

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DE LA CADENA, M. . Cosmopolítica indígena nos Andes: reflexões conceituais para além da “política”. Maloca: Revista de Estudos Indígenas, Campinas, SP, v. 2, p. e019011, 2020. DOI: 10.20396/maloca.v2i.13404. Disponível em: https://econtents.bc.unicamp.br/inpec/index.php/maloca/article/view/13404. Acesso em: 3 dez. 2022.

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