¿Por qué todos estos "neos"? ¿Por qué ahora?

las condiciones estructurales de las "espiritualidades Nueva Era" en la era del mercado global, visto desde Latinoamérica

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.20396/csr.v23i00.15077

Palabras clave:

Nueva era, Neo-paganismo, Neo-indianismo, Religión, Sociedad de mercado, Pentecostalismo, Cosmopolitanismo

Resumen

Este artículo comienza con una crítica de los actuales enfoques dominantes que comparten los supuestos implícitos de lo que yo llamo el “paradigma de la secularización”, mostrando cómo y por qué estos enfoques son inadecuados para entender la importancia y la constitución de la neo-nebulosa (Nueva Era, neopaganismo, neo-indigenismo, neo-chamanismo y fenómenos relacionados). A continuación, el artículo se propone esbozar los lineamientos del modelo Estado-Nación-Mercado Global, destacando las características específicas de la religión en ambos regímenes. El artículo sigue con una discusión que muestra cómo las características de las religiosidades neo-nebulosas pueden relacionarse con las condiciones sociales creadas por la revolución neoliberal y consumista. El análisis concluye argumentando que la religión neo-nebulosa participa en la producción de un yo cosmopolita que puede navegar por los flujos siempre fluyentes del capitalismo global contemporáneo en mayor o menor medida para los públicos predominantemente urbanos, educados y de clase media, al tiempo que “engrandece” y conecta el yo, la naturaleza y el cosmos. Este artículo se centra específicamente en América Latina, en relación con “Occidente” y las tendencias globales. También incluye notas sobre la cuestión del “reencantamiento” o (re)apropiación de los sitios arqueológicos por parte de la neo-nebulosa.

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Biografía del autor/a

François Gauthier, Universidad de Friburgo

Catedrático de Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad de Friburgo.

Citas

ADLER, Margot. Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Druids, Goddess-Worshippers, and Other Pagans in America. London: Penguin Books, 2006.

ALTGLAS, Véronique. From Yoga to Kabbalah: Religious Exoticism and the Logics of Bricolage. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.

AMARAL, Leila. Carnaval da Alma: comunidade, essência e sincretismo na Nova Era. Petropolis: Vozes, 2001.

AMSELLE, Jean-Loup. Psychotropiques. La Fièvre de l’Ayahuasca en Forêt Amazonienne. Paris: Albin Michel, 2013.

ANDERSON, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso, 2016 [1983].

ARVIDSSON, Adam. Brands: Meaning and Value in Media Culture. Abingdon: Routledge, 2006.

BAUD, Sébatien; GHASARIAN, Christian (Orgs.). Des Plantes Psychotropes. Initiations, Thérapies et Quêtes de Soi. Paris: Imago, 2010.

BAUMAN, Zygmunt. Liquid Modernity. London: Polity, 2012 [1999].

BAYAT, Asef; HERRERA, Linda. Introduction: Being Young and Muslim in Neoliberal Times. In: BAYAT, Asef; HERRERA, Linda (Orgs.). Being Young and Muslim: New Cultural Politics in the Global South and North. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 3-24, 2010.

BEAUCHEMIN, Jacques. La société des identités. Éthique et politique dans le monde contemporain. Montréal: Athéna, 2004.

BELL, Emma; TAYLOR Scott. The Elevation of Work: Pastoral Power and the New Age Work Ethic. In: Organization, v. 10, n. 2, pp. 329-49, 2003.

BERGER, Peter. The Sacred Canopy: Elements for a Sociological Theory of Religion. New York: Anchor Books, 1980 [1967].

BEYER, Peter. Socially Engaged Religion in a Post-Westphalian Global Context: Remodelling the Secular/Religious Distinction. In: Sociology of Religion, v.73, n.2, pp. 109-29, 2012.

BEYER, Peter. Questioning the Secular/Religious Divide in a Post-Westphalian World. In: International Sociology, v. 28, n. 6, pp. 663–79, 2013.

BLAIN, Jenny; EZZY, Douglas; HARVEY, Graham (Orgs.). Researching Paganisms. Altamira Press, 2004.

BOLTANSKI, Luc; CHIAPELLO, Ève. Le Nouvel esprit du capitalisme. Paris: Gallimard, 1999.

BRENNER, Neil; PECK, Jamie; THEODORE, Nik. Variegated Neoliberalization: Geographies, Modalities, Pathways. In: Global Networks, v.10, n.2, pp. 182-222, 2010.

CAROZZI, María Julia. La Nueva Era y las terapias alternativas. Buenos Aires: Educa, 2000.

CARRETTE, Jeremy; KING, Richard. Selling Spirituality: The Silent Takeover of Religion. London: Routledge, 2005.

CASANOVA, José. Public Religions in the Modern World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

CASANOVA, José. The Secular, Secularizations, Secularism. In: CALHOUN, Craig; JÜRGENSMEYER; Mark; VAN ANTWERPEN, Jonathan (orgs). Rethinking Secularism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

CHAMPION, Françoise. La « nébuleuse mystique-ésoterique »; une décomposition du religieux entre humanisme revisité, magique, psychologique. In: LAPLANTINE, François Laplantine; MARTIN, Jean-Baptiste (Orgs.). Le Défi magique, volume 1 : Ésotérisme, occultisme, spiritisme. Lyon: Presses universitaires de Lyon, pp. 315-326, 1994.

CHAMPION, Françoise; NIZARD, Sophie; ZAWADSKI, Paul (orgs.). Le sacré hors religions. Paris: L’Harmattan, 2007.

CHAU, Adam Yuet. Miraculous Response. Doing Popular Religion in China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006.

CHAUDHURI, Himadri Roy; BELK, Russel W.. Marketization, Theory and Evidence from Emerging Economies. Singapore: Springer, 2020.

CORNELIO, Jayeel; GAUTHIER, François; MARTIKAINEN, Tuomas; WOODHEAD, Linda. Introduction: Religion in Global Societies. In: CORNELIO, Jayeel; GAUTHIER, François; MARTIKAINEN, Tuomas; WOODHEAD, Linda (orgs.). Routledge International Handbook of Religion in Global Society. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 1-16, 2021a.

CORNELIO, Jayeel; GAUTHIER, François; MARTIKAINEN, Tuomas; WOODHEAD, Linda. (Orgs.) Routledge International Handbook of Religion in Global Society. London and New York: Routledge, 2021b.

CORNELIO, Jayeel; MEDINA, Erron. The Prosperity Ethic. The Rise of the New Prosperity Gospel. In: CORNELIO, Jayeel; GAUTHIER, François; MARTIKAINEN, Tuomas; WOODHEAD, Linda. Routledge International Handbook of Religion in Global Society. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 65-76, 2021.

CSORDAS, Thomas. Body/Healing/Meaning. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2002.

DAWSON, Andrew. New Era – New Religions. Religious Transformations in Contemporary Brazil. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007.

DAWSON, Andrew. Consuming the Self: New Spirituality as “Mystified Consumption”. In: Social Compass, v.58, n.3, pp. 309-315, 2011.

D’ANDREA, Anthony. From Gregarious Syncretism to Reflexive Individualism: a Critical Review of New Age Studies in Latin America. In: International Journal of Latin American Religions, n.2, pp. 176-190, 2018.

DE LA TORRE, Renée. Presentación: la espiritualización de la religiosidad contemporánea. In: Ciencias Sociales y Religion/Ciencias Sociais e Religiao, v.18, n.24, pp. 10-17, 2016.

DE LA TORRE, Renée. The Feminization of Red Path: A Neo-Pagan Network of Female Sacralization. In: International Journal of Latin American Religions, n.2, pp. 234-247, 2018.

DE LA TORRE, Renée. Introducción. Los nuevos santuarios de una espiritualidad global: resignificaciones y apropiaciones contemporáneas de los sitios Arqueológicos. In: ARK Magazine, n.27, pp. 14-20, 2019.

DE LA TORRE, Renée; GUTIÉRREZ ZÚÑIGA, Cristina. La lógica del mercado y la lógica de la creencia en la creación de mercancías simbólicas. In: Desacatos, n.18, pp. 53-70, 2005.

DE LA TORRE, Renée; GUTIÉRREZ ZÚÑIGA, Cristina. Genealogías de la Nueva Era en México. In: REVER, v.16, n.2, pp. 55-91, 2016.

DE LA TORRE, Renée; GUTIÉRREZ ZÚÑIGA, Cristina. Mismos pasos y nuevos caminos. Transnacionalización de la danza conchera Azteca. Zapopan: Jalisco, 2017.

DE LA TORRE, Renée; GUTIÉRREZ ZÚÑIGA, Cristina. Healing in a Temazcal (Indigenous Sweat Lodge): Experiences from Rural Mexico to Holistic Spirituality Circles. In: SAIZAR, Mercedes; BORDES, Mariana (Orgs.). Alternative Therapies in Latin America: Policies, Practices and Beliefs. New York: Nova Science Publishers, pp. 23-38, 2018.

DUCHASTEL, Jules. Du gouvernement à la gouvernance. Crise ou ajustement de la régulation néolibérale. In: CANET, Raphaël; DUCHASTEL, Jules (Orgs.). La régulation néolibérale. Crise ou ajustement? Montréal: Athéna, pp. 17-47, 2004.

DURKHEIM, Émile. Les formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse. Paris: Presses universitaires de France, (1990) [1912].

EINSTEIN, Mara. Brands of Faith: Marketing Religion in a Commercial Age. New York: Routledge, 2008.

EISENSTADT, Shmuel N. Multiple Modernities. In: EISENSTADT, Shmuel N. (Org.). Multiple Modernities. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, pp. 1-29, 2002 [2000].

ELLINGSON, Stephen. Packaging Religious Experience, selling Modular Religion: Explaining the Emergence and Expansion of Megachurches. In: GAUTHIER, François; MARTIKAINEN, Tuomas (Orgs.). Religion in Consumer Society: Brands, Consumers, Markets. Farnham: Ashgate, pp. 59-74, 2013.

FARAHMAND, Manélie. Maya Revival Movements. Between Transnationality and Authenticity. In: CRONELIO, Jayeel; GAUTHIER, François; MARTIKAINEN, Tuomas Martikainen; WOODHEAD, Linda (Orgs.). Routledge International Handbook of Religion in Global Society. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 212-225, 2021.

FEATHERSTONE, Mike. Consumer Culture & Postmodernism. London: SAGE, 1991.

FEDELE, Anna. Looking for Mary Magdalene: Alternative Pilgrimage and Ritual Creativity at Catholic Shrines in France. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

FISCHER, Johan. Proper Islamic Consumption. Shopping among the Malays in Modern Malaysia. Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2009.

FRIEDMAN, Milton. Free to Choose. A Personal Statement, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1980.

FOUCAULT, Michel. Naissance de la biopolitique. Cours au Collège de France, 1978– 1979, Paris: Gallimard/Seuil/Hautes études, 2004 [1979].

GALINIER, Jacques; MOLINIÉ, Antoinette. The Neo-Indians. A Religion for the Third Millenium. Denver: University of Colorado, 2012.

GAUTHIER, François. Le sacré hors religion. Recension de Françoise Champion, Sophie Nizard and Paul Zawadski (eds.) Le sacré hors religions, Paris, L’Harmattan, 280 p. 2007. In: Revue du MAUSS, June 25, 2008.

GAUTHIER, François. Religion in Contemporary Consumer Societies. In Search of a Global Comprehensive Analytic. In: Revue du MAUSS, September, 2009.

GAUTHIER, François. Du bon usage des drogues en religion. Consommations néo-chamaniques à Burning Man. In: Drogues, santé et société, v.8, n.1, pp. 202-237, 2010.

GAUTHIER, François. Primat de l’authenticité et besoin de reconnaissance. La société de consommation et la nouvelle régulation du religieux. In: Studies in Religion/Sciences religieuses (SR), v.41, n.1: 93-111, 2012.

GAUTHIER, François. Intimate Circles and Mass Meetings. The Social Forms of Event-structured Religion in the Era of Globalized Markets and Hyper-mediatization. In: Social Compass, v.61, n.2: 261-271, 2014.

GAUTHIER, François. Religion, Media and the Dynamics of Consumerism in Globalising Societies. In: GRANHOLM, Kennet; MOBERG, Marcus; SJÖ, Sofia (orgs.). In: Religion, Media and Social Change. London: Routledge, pp. 71-88, 2015.

GAUTHIER, François. A Three-Tier, Three Level Model for the Study of Religion. In: JÖDICKE, Ansgar; LEHMANN, Karsten (orgs). Einheit und Differenz in der Religionswissenschaft. Standortbestimmungen mit Hilfe eines Mehr-Ebenen-Modells von Religion. Würzburg: Ergon-Verlag, pp. 157-74, 2016.

GAUTHIER, François. From nation-state to market: The transformations of religion in the global era, as illustrated by Islam. In: Religion, v.48, n.3, pp. 382-417, 2018.

GAUTHIER, François. Religion, Modernity, Globalisation. Nation-State to Market. London and New York: Routledge, 2020a.

GAUTHIER, François. (What is Left) of Secularization? Debate on Jörg Stolz’s article on Secularization theories in the 21st century: ideas, evidence, and problems. In: Social Compass, v.67, n.2, pp. 309-314, 2020b.

GAUTHIER, François. Authenticity, Consumer Culture and Charismatic Authority. In: Studies in Religion/Sciences religieuses. May, 2020c.

GAUTHIER, François. Définir le paradigme de la sécularisation pour mieux s’en abstenir. In: Religiologiques, Hors-Série 1: Mélanges en l’honneur de Guy Ménard, pp. 185-199, 2020d.

GAUTHIER, François. Religion Through the Lens of “Marketization” and “Lifestyle”. In: CORNELIO, Jayeel; GAUTHIER, François; MARTIKAINEN, Tuomas; WOODHEAD, Linda (Orgs.). Routledge International Handbook of Religion in Global Society. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 488-499, 2021a.

GAUTHIER, François. Religious Change in Orthodox-majority Eastern Europe. From Nation-State to Global-Market. In: Theory and Society, 2021b.

GAUTHIER, François; MARTIKAINEN, Tuomas (Orgs.). Religion in Consumer Society. Brands, Consumers, Markets. Farnham: Ashgate, 2013.

GAUTHIER, François; MARTIKAINEN, Tuomas (Orgs.) The Marketization of Religion. London and New York: Routledge, 2020.

GAUTHIER, François; MARTIKAINEN, Tuomas; WOODHEAD, Linda. Acknowledging a Global Shift: A Primer for Thinking about Religion in Consumer Societies. In: Implicit Religion, v.16, n.3, pp. 261-276, 2013a.

GAUTHIER, François; MARTIKAINEN, Tuomas; WOODHEAD, Linda. Introduction: Religion in Market Society. In: GAUTHIER, François; MARTIKAINEN, Tuomas (Orgs.). Religion in the Neoliberal Age. Political Economy and Modes of Governance. Farnham: Ashgate, pp.1-20, 2013b.

GAUTHIER, François; MARTIKAINEN, Tuomas; WOODHEAD, Linda. Introduction: Consumerism as the Ethos of Consumer Society. In: GAUTHIER, François; MARTIKAINEN, Tuomas (Orgs.). Religion in Consumer Society. Brands, Consumers, Markets. Farnham: Ashgate, pp.1-24, 2013c.

GAUTHIER, François; VANDENBERGHE, Frédéric. Présentation: Division concrète de la sociologie. In: Revue du MAUSS semestrielle, n.56, pp. 141-4, 2020.

GUERREIRO, Silas. The New Age ethos in Brazilian society. In: International Journal of Latin American Religions, n.2, pp. 221-233, 2018.

GUTIÉRREZ ZÚÑIGA, Cristina. Nuevos Movimientos Religiosos. La Nueva Era en Guadalajara. Zapopan: El Colegio de Jalisco, 1996.

HEELAS, Paul. The New Age Movement. The Celebration of the Self and Sacralization of Modernity. Oxford: Blackwell, 1996.

HEELAS, Paul. Spiritualities of Life: New Age Romanticism and Consumptive Capitalism. Oxford: Blackwell, 2008.

HEELAS, Paul; WOODHEAD, Linda. The Spiritual Revolution. Why Religion is Giving Way to Spirituality. Oxford: Blackwell, 2005.

HEILBRUNN, Benoît. La consommation et ses sociologies. Paris: Armand Colin, 2015.

HERVIEU-LÉGER, Danièle. La religion pour mémoire. Paris: Cerf, 1993.

HERVIEU-LÉGER, Danièle. Quelques paradoxes de la modernité religieuse. Crise de l’universel, planétarisation culturelle et renforcements communautaires. In: Futuribles, n.260, pp. 99-109, 2001.

HOBSBAWM, Eric. The Age of Empire. 1875–1914, London: Abacus, 1987.

HOBSBAWM, Eric. Nations and Nationalism since 1780. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992 [1990].

HOWELL, Julia Day. Muslims, the New Age and Marginal Religions in Indonesia: Changing Meanings of Religious Pluralism. In: Social Compass, n.52, v.4, pp. 473–93, 2005.

HOWELL, Julia Day. Modernity and Islamic Spirituality in Indonesia’s New Sufi Networks. In: VAN BRUINESSEN, Martin; HOWELL, Julia Day (Orgs.). Sufism and the ‘Modern’ in Islam, London: IB Tauris, pp. 217–41, 2007.

ILLOUZ, Eva. Cold Intimacies. The Making of Emotional Capitalism. London: Polity, 2007.

ILLOUZ, Eva. Saving the Modern Soul. Therapy, Emotions, and the Culture of Self-Help. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008.

KÖHRSEN, Jens. Religious Tastes and Styles as Markers of Class Belonging: A Bourdieuian Perspective on Pentecostalism in South America. In: Sociology, v.52, n.6, pp. 1237-1253, 2018.

KÖNIG, Matthias. Politics and Religion in European Nation-States. Institutional Varietiesand Contemporary Transformations. In: GIESEN, Berhard; SUBER, Daniel (Orgs.). Religion and Politics. Cultural Perspectives, Leyden: Brill, pp.291-315, 2005.

LEE, Martyn J.. Consumer Culture Reborn. The Cultural Politics of Consumption. London: Routledge, 1993.

LEMIEUX, Raymond. Bricolage et itinéraires de sens. In: Religiologiques, n.26, pp. 11-34, 2002.

LOFTON, Kathryn. Oprah. The Gospel of an Icon. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2011.

LUCKMANN, Thomas. The Invisible Religion. The Problem of Religion in Modern Society. New York: Macmillan, 1967.

LURY, Celia. Consumer Culture. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2011.

MAGLIOCCO, Sabina. Witching Culture: Folklore and Neo-Paganism in America. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.

MARTIKAINEN, Tuomas; GAUTHIER, François (Orgs.). Religion in the Neoliberal Age. Political Economy and Modes of Governance. Farnham: Ashgate, 2013.

MARTIN, David. Pentecostalism: The World Their Parish. Oxford: Blackwell, 2002.

MAUSS, Marcel. ‘La nation’. In: Année sociologique, s. 3, 1953/1954, pp. 7-68, 1920.

MAUSS, Marcel. Division concrète de la sociologie. In: MAUSS, Marcel. Essais de Sociologie, pp. 42-80, 1969 [1901-1934].

MCGUIRE, Meredith. Lived Religion. Faith and Practice in Everyday Life, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

MÉNARD, Guy. Petit traité de la vraie religion. À l’usage de ceux qui souhaitent comprendre le vingt et unième siècle. Montréal: Liber, 1999.

MEYER, Birgit. Pentecostalism and Globalization. In: ANDERSON, Allan; BERGUNDER, Michael; DROOGERS, Andre F.; VAN DER LAAN, Cornelius (Orgs.). Studying Global Pentecostalism, Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 113-130, 2010.

MEYER, Birgit. Religious Sensations. Media, Aesthetics, and the Study of Contemporary Religion. In: LYNCH, Gordon; MITCHELL, Jolyon (Orgs.). Religion, Media and Culture: A Reader, London: Routledge, pp. 159–70, 2012.

MOBERG, Marcus. Church, Market, and Media. A Discursive Approach to Institutional Religious Change. London, Oxford: Bloomsbury, 2017.

MOBERG, Marcus; MARTIKAINEN, Tuomas. Religious Change in Market and Consumer Society: The Current State of the Field and New Ways Forward. In: Religion, v.48, n.3, pp. 418–35, 2018.

PARTRIDGE, Christopher. The Re-Enchantment of the West: Alternative Spiritualities, Sacralization and Popular Culture and Occulture. Vol. 1. London: Clark International, 2004.

PARTRIDGE, Christopher. The Re-Enchantment of the West: Alternative Spiritualities, Sacralization and Popular Culture and Occulture. Vol. 2. London: Clark International, 2005.

PETTERSSON, Per. From Standardized Offer to Consumer Adaptation: Challenges to the Church of Sweden’s Identity. In: GAUTHIER, François Gauthier, MARTIKAINEN, Tuomas (Orgs.). Religion in Consumer Society: Brands, Consumers, Markets. Farnham: Ashgate, pp. 43-57, 2013.

PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Religion in Latin America: Widespread Change in a Historically Catholic Region. Report, November 13, 2014.

PIKE, Sarah M. Earthly Bodies, Magical Selves: Contemporary Pagans and the Search for Community. University of California Press, 2001.

PIKE, Sarah M. New Age and Neopagan Religions in America. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.

POLANYI, Karl. The Great Transformation. The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. Boston: Beacon Press, 2001 [1944].

PORTIER, Philippe. Les mutations de la gouvernementalité sous la Ve République. In: MORVAN, Pascal (Org.). Droit, politique et littérature. Mélanges en l’honneur du professeur Yves Guchet. Paris: Bruylant, pp. 173-190, 2008.

POSSAMAI, Adam. In Search of New Age Spiritualities. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005.

READER, Ian. Pilgrimage in the Marketplace. London: Routledge, 2014.

ROOF, Wade Clark. A Generation of Seekers: The Spiritual Journeys of the Baby Boom Generation. San Francisco: Harper, 1993.

ROOF, Wade Clark. Spiritual Marketplace. Baby Boomers and the Remaking of American Religion. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999.

ROSANVALLON, Pierre. Le libéralisme économique. Histoire de l’idée de marché. Paris: Seuil, 1979.

ROSANVALLON, Pierre. L’État en France de 1789 à nos jours. Paris: Seuil, 1989.

SAAD-FILHO, Alfredo; JOHNSTON, Deborah (Orgs.). Neoliberalism: A Critical Reader. London: Pluto Press, 2005.

SALOMONSEN, Jone. Enchanted Feminism: The Reclaiming Witches of San Francisco. London: Routledge, 2002.

SASSATELLI, Roberta. Consumer Culture. History, Theory and Politics. London: Sage, 2007.

SCHLAMELCHER, Jens. The Decline of the Parishes and the Rise of City Churches: The German Evangelical Church in the Age of Neoliberalism. In: MATIKAINEN, Tuomas; GAUTHIER, François (Orgs.). Religion in the Neoliberal Age: Political Economy and Modes of Governance. Farnham: Ashgate, pp. 53–67, 2013.

SCOTT, James C. Seeing Like a State. How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. New Haven and Boston: Yale University Press, 2020.

SEMÁN, Pablo; VIOTTI, Nicolás. «El paraíso esta dentro de nosotros». La espiritualidad de la Nueva Era, ayer y hoy. In: Nueva Sociedad, n.260, pp. 81-94, 2015.

SLATER, Don. Consumer Culture and Modernity. Cambridge: Polity, 1997.

STOLZ, Jörg. Secularization theories in the 21st century: ideas, evidence, and problems. In: Social Compass, v.67, n.2, pp. 282-308, 2020.

STOLZ, Jörg (Org.). Salvation Goods and Religious Markets. Theory and Application. Bern: Peter Lang, 2008.

STOLZ, Jörg; KÖNEMANN, Judith; SCHNEUWLY PURDIE, Mallory; ENGLBERGER Thomas; KRÜGGELER, Micheal. (Un)Believing in Modern Society. Religion, Spirituality, and Religious-Secular Competition. London: Routledge, 2016.

SUTCLIFFE, Steven. Children of the New Age: A History of Spiritual Practices. London and New York: Routledge, 2003.

TAIRA, Teemu. The Problem of Capitalism in the Scholarship on Contemporary Spirituality. In: AHLBÄCK, Tore (Org.). Postmodern Spirituality. Åbo: The Donner Institute for Religious and Cultural History, pp.230-244, 2008.

TAROT, Camille. Gift and Grace: A family to be recomposed? In: VANDEVELDE, Anton (Org.). Gifts and Interests. Leuven: Peeters, pp.133-55, 2000.

TAYLOR, Bron. Dark Green Religion: Nature Spirituality and the Planetary Future. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010.

TAYLOR, Charles. The Malaise of Modernity. Toronto: Anansi, 1991.

TAYLOR, Charles. Varieties of Religion Today. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002.

TSCHANNEN, Olivier. Les Théories de la Sécularisation. Genève: Droz, 1994.

VAN DER VEER, Peter. Imperial Encounters: Religion and Modernity in India and Britain. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001.

VOAS, David. The Continuing Secular Transition. In: POLLACK, Detlef; OLSON, Daniel V.A. (Orgs.). The Role of Religion in Modern Society. New York: Routlege, pp.25-48, 2008.

WEBER, Max. Économie et Société, 2. L’organisation et les puissances de la société dans leur rapport avec la sociologie. Paris: Plon, 1995 [1921].

Descargas

Publicado

2021-08-31

Cómo citar

Gauthier, F. (2021). ¿Por qué todos estos "neos"? ¿Por qué ahora? las condiciones estructurales de las "espiritualidades Nueva Era" en la era del mercado global, visto desde Latinoamérica. Ciencias Sociales Y Religión/Ciências Sociais E Religião, 23(00), e021008. https://doi.org/10.20396/csr.v23i00.15077